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PCB Fabrication Basics – Anatomy Of A Printed Circuit Board

From the used to be pagers or beepers, to radios and radars, to the modern cell phones and laptops, all of such computer systems are composed of one common basic component: PCBs. Printed circuit boards or printed wiring boards or cards – however you may call it, it is one of the fundamentals of electronics and let’s take time to understand how it is made and used.
 

What really is a PCB?

A printed circuit board, or PCB, is a self-contained module of interconnected electronic components. Simply speaking, it is a board consisting of lines and pads that connect various points together. It can perform a single specific function or even up to multiple ones.
 

What is it made of?

Like what was said earlier, a printer circuit board is composed of lines and pads, but going into more detail, let’s break down the components that make up this board’s composition (as determined through PCB fabrication). Imagine it like a layered cake, or a lasagna, wherein different layers are laid up and are laminated together through heat and adhesive materials.
 
PCB AssemblyFirst off, is the base material, substrate, usually fiberglass. This is the main component of a printed circuit board. This gives the board a thick and rigid solid core. In some cases though, a printed circuit board can be built on flexible high-temperature plastic, Kapton, for example, or any equivalent.
 
Printed circuit boards come in different thicknesses; though, commonly, they come in 1.6mm or 0.063”. There are also cheaper printed circuit boards and they come in made from other less expensive materials such as epoxies or phenolics. You need to take note though, that should you be opting for this alternative that they come in less durable.
 
You will notice this when you solder to it during PCB fabrication, they will emit a relatively distinct bad odor. They should be handled or used with extra care as they can have a low thermal decomposition temperature, causing them to delaminate, smoke up, and even char. Low-end consumer electronics are usually built on these types of printed circuit boards.
 
Printed circuit boardsThe next layer, would be a thin copper foil, laminated to the board with head and adhesive materials. On double sided printed circuit boards, the more common ones, this is applied to both sides of the substrate. However, in lower end electronic gadgets, copper could only come in one side of the board. When talking about double sided printed circuit boards, it just means that it is referring to the number of copper layers the board has, which is 2 in this matter. It can come in as few as one layer, or can grow as many as twenty or even more.
 
The thickness of this copper layer can also vary between PCB fabrication processes, but it is, and should be, specified by weight, in ounces per square foot. Majority, well vast majority, of printed circuit boards have one ounce per square foot but should they need to handle very high power, they can have up to 2 or 3 ounces per square foot. Each ounce per square foot translates to about 35 micrometers or 1.4 thousandths of an inch of thickness of copper.
 
The solder mask would be the next layer laid on top of the copper foil. This is what makes the printed circuit board green in color, though some rare varieties can come in red too so any color is possible. It is laid on top of the copper foil layer to insulate it and prevent contact to other metal components. This can help the user to solder to the proper places and prevent what they call, accidental jumpers.
 
Pcb fabricationA white silkscreen layer is what’s overlaid onto the solder mask layer. This adds letters, or numbers, or any symbols to the printed circuit board and makes easier assembly for users. This way, humans can see indicators and better understand the board. The silkscreen labels are used in indicating what the function of each pin or LED is. Normally, the silkscreen labels are white in color but any color can be just used, such as gray, red, black, or yellow. But never a case that multiple ones are used as it will be difficult to embed.
 
As you can see a printed circuit board is made up of dedicated materials and can be quite a challenge to build. However, to make our lives easier, and not to mention, safer, there are some services out there that can provide you ready made circuit boards. Or should you have a more detailed and specific design or build in mind, they can do the PCB fabrication process for you. Some services, such as from Imagineering, Inc., come in online. Ordering and obtaining your printed circuit boards are less hassle and come in a very timely manner, and not to mention, with highest of quality.

Author Bio:
Pcbnet are provide an important part of a wide range of machineries, computing devices, automobiles, appliances, and other electronic gadgets. PCB fabrication are ready and able to produce the finest quality products that our customers have come to expect.
Author | Elsie Hamilton Comments | 0 Date | July 13, 2016

The Best Military Coins Collectibles

Military coins have many uses. They are used as a reward and identification in various military units. They are also used as collectibles by many enthusiasts. In fact, some old coins can be traded for a huge price.

So, if you’re one of the many people who are into collecting military coins, here’s an extensive list of challenge coins that you can add to your collection:

1. USN Navy Alaska SSBN-732 CPO Chief’s Mess

This challenge coin is expensive and it has a unique coin design and shape. It features an image of a strong man in a lotus or cross-legged position. This coin is expensive and it’s a bit difficult to find.

2. USS Constitution Old Iron sides Navy Frigate Challenge Coin

Military CoinsThis coin is made of bronze and it has the shape and the image of a ship. This coin is also expensive and it is one of the most sought after challenge coins.

3. Command Master Chief Fleet JMSDF Coin

This was made for the officers of the marines. This coin is made of high quality materials and it contains an illustration of a gold shell. This coin is one of the most expensive coins in the market today.

4. Jolly Roger Submarine Commemorative Coin

This coin was created to commemorate the Jolly Roger submarine challenge. This coin contains the portrait of a mermaid and an anchor. This is a special edition coin so it is a bit difficult to find.

5. Navy Seal Team 5 Challenge Coin

This coin was only distributed to certain marine officers. This coin is colorful and it is made of high quality materials.

6. US Secret Service Intelligence and Assessment Division Coin

This challenge coin was given to the few men and women working in the US Secret Service. This coin is extremely rare and too expensive, too. So, if you want to add something valuable and uncommon to your collection, you should definitely add this.

7. Commanding General Special Forces Airborne Challenge Coin

custom military coinsThis coin is only given to the commander general of the Special Forces Airborne of the United States Army. This is the reason why this coin is expensive and hard to find. It is every coin collector’s dream.

8. 82nd Airborne Coin Workhorse Special Forces

This coin is not only rare, it is unique, too. It has a workhorse design and it is made of high quality materials.

9. USS Norfolk SSN-714

This challenge coin contains the words “pride runs deep”. This coin is made with precision and passion. It has a glossy blue base and it contains the image of the American flag.

10. USS PONCE AFSB 15 Lion Navy Chief Copper

This coin is shaped after a fighting lion. It is made of bronze and copper and it is one of the most in demand military coins today.

11. Japanese Pinup Coin

This is a limited edition coin produced by the US navy. It contains an image of an anchor and a beautiful Japanese woman. This coin has a unique shape and design and it would be a good addition to your collection.

12. US Air Force MQ 9 Reaper Coin

This is a polished die cast coin that looks like a tiny airplane. It is one of the most in demand coins in the market right now and it is one of the collector’s favorites.

13. US Embassy Ecuador Coin

This is a vintage so it is extremely expensive. It is made of copper and bronze and it contains the seal of the US Department of State.

14. CIA Embossed Eagle Coin

This coin is made especially for CIA agents. This was produced in 1942 so it is one of the rare collectible items.

15. 57th Presidential Inauguration

Custom CoinsThis expensive coin was produced to commemorate the 57th inauguration of the president and the vice president of the United States.

16. Canadian Secret Intelligence Service Commemorative Coin

This coin is given to the members of the Canadian Secret Intelligence Service. This coin is made of high quality materials.

17. USN Navy Seals Bone Frog

This coin has a unique shape and it is really expensive. This coin resembles the skeleton of a frog. It is made of high quality raw materials.

18. 17th SMMC Barrett Challenge Coin

This coin is almost $200 and it was given only to high ranking marine corps officials.

19. Interpol Police Logo Coin

This coin resembles a badge. It contains the logo of the international police logo.

If you’re a serious challenge coin collector, you must try to get these military coins – to know more, just head on to ChallengeCoins4Less.com.

Author | Derek Swanson Comments | 0 Date | July 6, 2016

Golf Clubs for Ladies

When it comes to choosing the right golf clubs, women golfers must undergo proper fitting especially if they are beginners. Due to the modern technological advances, you can now purchase the clubs that will enable you to get the ball in the air as you attain a more accurate shot that reaches a farther distance. When choosing which equipment to purchase, it is best to ask for the assistance of a pro or an experienced representative. The set you carry in your bag must be a mixture of irons, woods and hybrids.
 
The first challenge you will need to face if you want to become a better golfer is the way you hit the ball. When hitting the ball, make sure that the center of your club head will hit it squarely in order to achieve good contact. This area is called the sweet spot of the club head. You must avoid striking the ball with the heel or the toe of your club head. The distance that your golf ball can reach will dramatically be reduced if you hit it on the top or if you touch the ground (which can result to a flat shot).
 
golfAccording to the official rules of the United States Golf Association, players are allowed to have 14 golf clubs on their bags. That is already more than what you will need. For you to play like a professional golfer, you will need a good golf club combination. This includes a putter, a sand wedge, a pitching wedge, wood with different lofts and the driver. It would be better if you replace your 3-, 4- and 5-iron with hybrid golf clubs which can help you achieve better hits. It is preferable for lower handicapped golfers to add a 5-iron and a 3-wood on their set.
 

Important Features

 
It is preferable for high-handicap women to opt for golf clubs with oversized club heads. Their tendency of missing a shot will be lesser because of the bigger sweet spot. If you want to make the ball go straighter, then perimeter weighting on the irons can help you. This can improve your shot even if you hit with its toe or heel. A club that has a wider sole and a larger loft can help you get the ball into the air more efficiently. Outside-in swings can be improved with the help of offset club heads. You will be able to hit the ball with a squarer clubface by using them because they can easily be kept that way while swinging. If you are looking to launch the ball and reach a farther distance, then hybrids and woods with more loft and lower center of gravity are what you need.
 
It will be easier for you to avoid making hooks by counteracting spin or curve shots if you use the ones with higher lofts. If you are one of the high handicap female golf players with low swing speeds, then you should opt for drivers that have flexible shafts, club heads that exceeds 430 cc, and have up to 15 degrees loft. This will not only improve your shot, it will also reduce your tendency of missing them.
 
When it comes to this sport, many women find it hard to develop their performance. There are various reasons behind this. Among them are lack of experience, improper way of swinging and lack of upper body strength. The good thing is that most of these issues can be improved with the help of the right equipment and features. By following the tips and guidelines you have learned in this article, you can be sure that your game performance will dramatically improve.

Author | Mary Tucker Comments | 0 Date | May 24, 2016

Inspirational Safety Talks for People in the Workplace

Safety in the workplace is an issue that should concern everyone. Aside from keeping your employees safe, the observance of safety will positively impact other parts of your operation.

It will contribute to the overall efficiency of your workers that in turn increases the quality of their output. Moreover, additional costs associated with injuries in the workplace are significantly minimized.

This positive effect also extends to the families of your employees. Because your workers are in good physical shape they can continue to look after their family’s needs.

Leading the Way to Safety

sefty talksThe task of ensuring a safe workplace often falls on the shoulders of a safety leader. However, the work of a safety leader will be more effective when everyone in the company is committed to the same vision.

Hence, if you are the safety leader it will be in your company’s best interest to conduct regular safety talks. These dialogues should involve top management as well as rank and file.

Your guidelines for safety should be objective, consistent, and practical. These criteria will ensure that people will accept and apply the safety guidelines in the course of their work.

As a responsible leader, your safety talks will be useless if you cannot put into practice your own rules. People are more likely to abide by the standards if they see you doing your part also.

Get others involved as well by employing the help of your staff. They will be your eyes and help you implement the guidelines. At the same time, encourage them to give their own ideas and suggestions. In this manner, they become part of the solution too.

Make your safety talks fresh and up to date through the use of the latest technology. An interactive presentation provides greater interest and recall for your participants.

Impart to your audience that safety is a team effort. Your actions should take into consideration the hazards faced by your team as they work. So it is important that you are fully aware of their responsibilities and experiences.

As safety leader, you need to play an active role in the implementation of guidelines. Your efforts should also incorporate discipline and recognition. Instill discipline among workers in following the guidelines.

Discipline should be enforced in instances when there is a clear violation of the rules. In particular, cases that involve individuals whose actions may have placed themselves or others at risk.

At the same time, recognize the efforts of individuals who comply and also go the extra mile to practice safety.

How to Make Safety Important to Others

speakerThe successful implementation of safety guidelines will necessitate the active participation of employees. Do your best to inspire others with the same passion you have for safety, in this manner they become more mindful of their actions.

As a result, they will have a better understanding of why the guidelines are in place. Furthermore, they know the consequences that might befall them if they choose to ignore the guidelines. Making safety important to others can be achieved by employing any or all of the following tips.

–    Create safety committees and conduct regular meetings that will tackle any issue or concern throughout the work area

–    Appoint safety representatives who would represent and speak on behalf of their respective departments

–    Assign select employees to serve as trainers since they would be most knowledgeable in their respective field to train others about a new method or practice to be implemented

–    Solicit ideas from your staff shows how much the company values their insight, for example, ask them to take part in the selection process when purchasing tools.

Safety talks provide the opportune venue to empower your workforce and ensure a safe working environment for everyone.

Author | Ruth Harmon Comments | 1 Date | May 13, 2016

GW1516: Pros and Cons

GW1516 – even the name is mysterious. And sure enough, if you consult online discussion boards, you will notice an element of mystery surrounding the drug. No one seems to be certain as to just how much the average dosage should be; there is still debate even over the merits of the drug. There are those praising the benefits of the drug; on the other hand, there are those who either claim it makes no difference at all or it actually is more damaging than it is helpful. It seems to be a particularly popular subject among athletes and bodybuilders, alongside those scientists trying to modify the compound. To help shed some light on the matter, here is a brief pros-and-cons list regarding the GW1516:

 

As for the pros, it has been shown that the protein the drug affects is the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (or the PPAR delta).

 

This protein is involved in many biological processes, and seems to have a hand in the development of diseases like cancer, diabetes, obesity, and atherosclerosis, among others. The use of the drug, as originally intended, would be to serve as treatment for these diseases.

 

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In animal testing, it has also been shown to increase endurance in mice. In rats, the upregulation of the expression of proteins—this is directly involved in energy use—was noted. Increased metabolism of fatty acid in skeletal muscle was likewise observed. In obese rhesus monkeys, increased levels of high-density lipoprotein with corresponding decreases in very low density lipoprotein were noted. The drug has also been shown to protect against diet-induced obesity and Type II diabetes. Furthermore, it was observed that GW1516 allows the metabolism to burn fat for energy instead of using carbohydrates and muscle protein. Aside from this, it was shown that the drug is responsible for increasing muscle mass while at the same time decreasing fat mass. Because of these factors, the compound is highly popular with athletes and bodybuilders.

 

As for the cons, note that the World Anti-Doping Agency has classified the drug as a hormone and metabolic modulator, landing on its list of prohibited substances in 2009. A number of professional athletes have already been sacked because of the illegal use of the drug. It is not only the World Anti-Doping Agency that is against the use of the drug; even governments have joined in the fray, prohibiting it in athletic events. The World Anti-Doping Agency said in a statement in 2013 that potential users should steer clear of the drug, especially as it was never approved—and never will, as the Agency claimed.

 

Furthermore, note that the original developer, GSK, was the one who shelved its own GW1516 project. By the end of almost two decades of research and testing, it was apparent that the compound caused cancers in rats—in the brain, liver, intestines, tongue, skin, testes, ovaries, and even in the womb. Earlier studies at around 2003 also pointed to increased polyps in genetically-engineered mice used as test subjects, but these claims were rebuffed by GSK, asserting that no adverse effects have been noted by then. By 2013, however, the cancer-causing properties of the compound were already well publicized.

 

These are just some of the pros and cons of using the GW1516. Since GSK shelved its own project—perhaps a sign of frustration or recognition of futility—many believe that the compound can still be modified and perhaps perfected, and this attracts scientists. The near-obscurity of this drug also contributes to the fascination many still seem to have—many buy the drug, preferring to see by themselves the benefits that it brings.

Author | Kyle Baron Comments | 0 Date | April 11, 2016